AERADE Reports Archive
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Wind-tunnel tests on a series of wing models through a large angle of attack range. Part I : force tests
Knight, Montgomery Wenzinger, Carl J
This investigation covers force tests through a large range of angle of attack on a series of monoplane and biplane wing models. The tests were conducted in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The models were arranged in such a manner as to make possible a determination of the effects of variations in tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweep back, and airfoil profile. The arrangements represented most of the types of wing systems in use on modern airplanes. The effect of each variable is illustrated by means of groups of curves. In addition, there are included approximate autorotational characteristics in the form of calculated ranges of "rotary instability." a correction for blocking in this tunnel which applies to monoplanes at large angles of attack has been developed, and is given in an appendix. (author)
Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models
Montgomery Knight, Richard Noyes
This report is on the changes in forces on each wing of a biplane cellule when either the stagger or the gap is varied. Since each test was carried up to a 90 degree angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning as well as in the structural design of biplane wings.
Wind tunnel pressure distribution tests on a series of biplane wing models Part III : effects of charges in various combinations of stagger, gap, sweepback, and decalage
Montgomery Knight, Richard W. Noyes
This preliminary report furnishes information on the changes in the forces on each wing of a biplane cellule for various combinations of stagger and gap, stagger and sweepback, stagger and decalage, and gap and decalage. The data were obtained from pressure distribution tests made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. Since each test was carried up to to 90 degrees angle of attack, the results may be used in the study of stalled flight and of spinning as well as in the structural design of biplane wings.
Preliminary biplane tests in the variable density wind tunnel
James M. Shoemaker
Biplane cellules using the N.A.C.A.-M6 airfoil section have been tested in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Three cellules, differing only in the amount of stagger, were tested at two air densities, corresponding to pressures of one atmosphere and of twenty atmospheres. The range of angle of attack was from -2 degrees to +48 degrees. The effect of stagger on the lift and drag, and on the shielding effect of the upper wing by the lower at high angles of attack was determined.
Wind tunnel force tests in wing systems through large angles of attack
Carl J. Wenzinger, Thomas A. Harris
Force tests on a systematic series of wing systems over a range of angle of attack from minus forty-five degrees to plus ninety degrees are covered in this report. The investigation was made on monoplane and biplane wing models to determine the effects of variations of tip shape, aspect ratio, flap setting, stagger, gap, decalage, sweepback, and airfoil profile.
Wind tunnel tests on autorotation and the "flat spin."
This report deals with the autorotational characteristics of certain differing wing systems as determined from wind tunnel tests made at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The investigation was confined to autorotation about a fixed axis in the plane of symmetry and parallel to the wind direction. Analysis of the tests leads to the following conclusions: autorotation below 30 degree angle of attack is governed chiefly by wing profile, and above that angle by wing arrangement. The strip method of autorotation analysis gives uncertain results between maximum C subscript L and 35 degrees. The polar curve of a wing system, and to a lower degree of accuracy the polar of a complete airplane model are sufficient for direct determination of the limits of rotary instability, subject to strip method limitations. The results of the investigation indicate that in free flight a monoplane is incapable of flat spinning, whereas an unstaggered biplane has inherent flat-spinning tendencies. The difficulty of maintaining equilibrium in stalled flight is due primarily to rotary instability, a rapid change from stability to instability occurring as the angle of maximum lift is exceeded. (author)
The distribution of loads between the wings of a biplane having decalage
Richard M. Mock
It is known that in a biplane the load is not distributed equally between the wings. The presence of one wing will affect the lift characteristics of the other wings. A designer must know the total load that each wing carries in order that he may design an adequate structure. The purpose here is to determine the distribution of loads between the wings of a biplane at various angles of decalage, when the gap/chord ratio is one, and there is no stagger. The effective lift of each wing was first investigated, using the vortex theory, and later by wind tunnel experiments. The results are given in tabular form.
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models
Munk, Max M
The air forces on a systematic series of biplane and triplane cellule models are the subject of this report. The test consist in the determination of the lift, drag, and moment of each individual airfoil in each cellule, mostly with the same wing section. The magnitude of the gap and of the stagger is systematically varied; not, however, the decalage, which is zero throughout the tests. Certain check tests with a second wing section make the tests more complete and conclusions more convincing. The results give evidence that the present army and navy specifications for the relative lifts of biplanes are good. They furnish material for improving such specifications for the relative lifts of triplanes. A larger number of factors can now be prescribed to take care of different cases.
These experiments were carried out to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of various triplanes, which differed in the relative positions of the wings and, more especially, in the stagger, and in the shape of the wing sections. The tests were restricted to such dispositions as appeared constructively adapted to the plan form considered. Four different sets of wings were used in these tests, three of which had the same cross-section but differed in aspect ratio and in area. The tests were made at an air velocity of about 30 m.p.s. (98.4 ft/sec.) in the large wind tunnel. Results are given in tabular and graphical form.
General biplane theory
Munk, Max M
This report deals with the air forces on biplane cellule. The first part of the report deals with the two-dimensional problem neglecting viscosity. The variation of the section, chord, gap, stagger, and decalage are investigated, a great number of examples are calculated, and all numerical results are given in tables. For the biplane without stagger it is found that the loss of lift in consequence of the mutual influence of the two wing sections is only half as much if the lift is produced by the curvature of the section as it is when the lift is produced by the inclination of the chord to the direction of motion. The second part deals with the influence of the lateral dimensions. It is found that the loss of lift due to induction is almost unchanged, whether the biplane is staggered or not. In the third part conclusions from previous investigations are drawn, viscosity and experimental experience are brought in, and the method is simplified for practical application. Simple formulas give the drag, lift, and moment. In order to make use of the simple formulas more convenient, tables for the dynamical pressure, induced drag, and angle of attack are added so that practically no computation is needed for the application of the results.
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